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Yearly Schedule: 2014-2015

For a tentative list of courses for the 2014-2015 academic year click here.

Click here to see a full list of courses from the General Catalog


Fall Quarter 2014

Below is a listing of the courses offered by the History Department to undergraduates for Fall Quarter 2014. This list is subject to change, please check back often. To find the day, time and course registration number (CRN) for the courses below click here.

History 4A– Western Civilization Professor McKee

How the West Was Never One: A survey of the myriad cultures and religions that make up the West. The lectures and readings will address the political and social history of the peoples of Europe, beginning with the Roman Republic and ending at the end of the Middle Ages. How "Europe" as a geopolitical concept and "European" as a political and cultural term emerged over the past two millennia are the chief subjects of the course.


  • Kidner, Frank et al. Making Europe: People, Politics, and Culture, vol 1.
  • Harris, Imperium: A Novel of Ancient Rome
  • Chronicles of the First Crusade.
  • Primary source readings provided

Grading: TBA

    History 4C – Western Civilization
    Professor Saler

    This course is an entry-level survey of the central political, social, economic, cultural and intellectual developments in Europe since the French Revolution. Readings include works by Voltaire, Mary Shelley, Karl Marx, H. Rider Haggard, Sigmund Freud, Art Spiegelman, James J. Sheehan.


    • Donald Kagan, The Western Heritage, 11th Edition, Volume Two, with MYHISTORYLAB included
    • Mary Shelley, Frankenstein
    • Robert Blaisdell, The Communist Manifesto and Other Revolutionary Writings
    • Haggard, She
    • Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents
    • Spiegelman, The Complete Maus
    • Voltaire, Letters on England
    • James J. Sheehan, Where Have All the Soldiers Gone?


    Grading: TBA

      History 6 – Introduction to the Middle East 
      Professor De Souza

      Survey of the major social, economic, political and cultural transformations in the Middle East from the rise of Islam (c. 600 A.D.) to the present, emphasizing themes in religion and culture, politics and society.

      Readings: TBA

      Grading: TBA

      History 7A – History of Latin America to 1700 
      Professor Resendez 

      This is an introductory course to the history of Spanish and Portuguese America from the late pre-Columbian period through the initial phase and consolidation of a colonial regime (circa 1700). The lectures, readings, and discussion sections offer a broad overview of the indigenous roots and realities of the hemisphere, the Spanish and Portuguese conquests of this region, and the emergence of colonial regimes in the 16th and 17th centuries. It will explore the contrasting experiences of Indians, Africans, and Europeans and their mixed descendants in this evolving colonial world. Particular attention is devoted to the disruptions and continuities in the major indigenous civilizations of the continent, colonialism, racial mixture and race relations, gender, labor systems, identity, religion and spirituality, and environmental transformation. This is the beginning of a three-course sequence devoted to the history of Latin America. Each course can be taken independently.

      Readings:         TBA

      Grading:           TBA

        History 8 – Indian Civilization 
        Professor Sen 

        Survey of the changing mosaic of Indian civilization from the rise of cities (ca. 2000 B.C.) to the late 20th century, emphasizing themes such as religion, social and political organization, art, and literature, that reflect the wider patterns of a composite culture.


        • John Keay, History of India
        • Karl J. Schmidt, An Atlas and Survey of South Asian History


        Grading:  2 Papers 20% each, Final Exam 40%, Class participation 20%

        History 9A – History of East Asian Civilization 
        Professor Javers 

        Surveys traditional Chinese civilization and its modern transformation. Emphasis is on thought and religion, political and social life, art and literature. Perspectives on contemporary China are provided.


        • Ebrey, The Cambridge Illustrated History of China
        • Ebrey, Chinese Civilization: A Sourcebook


        Grading: TBA

        History 10B – World History 1350-1850
        Professor Stolzenberg 

        This course explores the roots of the modern global order in the large-scale processes that transformed the world between the mid-fourteenth and mid-nineteenth centuries: the intensification of cross-cultural contacts and conflicts, technological and environmental change, the emergence of the first truly global exchange network, the transformation of warfare by gunpowder, the rise of centralized bureaucratic states, the end of the era of agrarian civilizations, and the origins of industrialization, capitalism, and modern imperialism.


        • Tignor, et al. Worlds Together, Worlds Apart, vol. B
        • Said Hamdun, Ibn Battuta in Black Africa
        • Noel Perrin, Giving Up the Gun
        • Spaarks, Two Princes of Calabar


        Grading: TBA

        History 17A – History of the United States
        Professor Smolenski

        This course covers American history from the Euro-American Encounter in 1492 through the Reconstruction period following the Civil War.  It examines not only the political master-narrative, but also the social, cultural, and intellectual history of the emerging American nation, and includes the experience of Native Americans, Women and African-Americans, among other groups.


        • Murrin. Liberty, Equality, Power: A History of the American People vol. 1 to 1877
        • Hollitz. Contending Voices, vol. 1
        • Klepp. The Infortunate: The Voyage and Adventures of William Moraley
        • Hinks. David Walker’s Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World

        Grading:  Grades are based upon participation, mid-term and final exams, and 2 papers.

        History 17B – History of the United States
        Professor Olmsted 

        This course will cover the social, political, and foreign policy history of the United States since the end of the Civil War.  We will discuss Reconstruction, westward expansion, immigration and industrialization, the progressive era, World War I, modernization, the New Deal, the vast changes wrought by U.S. participation in World War II, the civil rights movement, the Vietnam War, social protest movements of the 1960s and 1970s, Watergate, the decline of trust in government, the Reagan administration, and America in our time.


        • Sinclair, The Jungle
        • Ingalls, The United States since 1945: A Documentary Reader
        • Moody, Coming of Age in Mississippi
        • Uchida, Desert Exile
        • Foner, Give Me Liberty Vol. 2


        Grading: Midterm, 20%, First paper, 20%, Second paper, 20%, Final, 30%, Section, 10%

            History 102J – The History of Food in Latin America  
            Professor Resendez 

            When Columbus set foot in the New World in 1492 not only did two human populations (Europeans and Native Americans) that had not been in contact for thirteen thousand years finally met again, but also a host plants and animals were exchanged.  Europeans gave cows, wheat, grapes, horses, smallpox, malaria, and many other organisms to the Americas.  Conversely, the New World gave tomatoes, corn, avocados, tobacco, cocaine, and many other items to the rest of the world.  This momentous “Columbian exchange”—as one scholar has called it—has given rise to new products, new cuisines, and new ways to live in the world.  In this undergraduate seminar we will use food as a window into the history of Latin America and conversely we will study how the foods of Latin America have transformed the rest of the world.


            • Paul Gootenberg, Andean Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug
            • Sydney Mintz, Sweetness and Power
            • Jeffrey M. Pilcher, Que vivan los tamales
            • Judith Carney, Black Rice
            • Amy Butler Greenfield, A Perfect Red
            • Mark Pendergast, Uncommon Grounds

            These books are on reserve at Shields Library or they can be purchased at the campus bookstore.

            Grading :

            1) Participation in Class (20%)

            2) Mid-term assignment (20%)

            3) Final assignment (60%)

            History 102M – American Leadership in Depression and War: The United States in the Roosevelt Administration
            Professor Rauchway 

            Undergraduate proseminar in History: United States since 1896

            Readings: TBA

            Grading: TBA

              History 102N– Japan Professor Kim

              In this year History 102N will examine the evolution of political system, ideologies and practices of modern Japan, focusing on two apparently contradictory concepts: monarchy and democracy, that nonetheless have arguably formed the twin essential components of modern Japanese politics from Meiji Restoration (1868) to today.

              Throughout the seminar we will study the restoration of the monarchy in conjunction with Japan's rapid modernization, various Confucian, nativist and "Eurocentric" attempts to justify the authority of the Japanese emperor, the complicated process of arriving at a constitutional monarchy, introduction and flourishing of liberalism and democratic thought in late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, especially during the eras of the so-called Popular Rights Movement and Taisho Democracy, countervailing influence of the emperor-centered anti-democratic and anti-liberal thoughts, and the ambivalent nature of postwar Japan's "symbolic emperor system."

              You are forewarned that History 102N is a very reading- and writing-heavy and competitive course. You are required to write papers every week and a longer term paper. There is no examination.  If you are not interested in the history of East Asia, I recommend you not to register for this course.

              Although it is intended for History majors, non-majors are welcome. If you have any questions regarding these issues, consult the instructor individually.  No language other than English is used for the class.


              • Kyu Hyun Kim, Age of Visions and Arguments
              • Takashi Fujitani, Splendid Monarchy
              • Andrew Gordon, Labor and Imperial Democracy in Prewar Japan
              • Kenneth Ruoff, People's Emperor
              • Other select primary sources, academic books and articles.


              Grading: There will be weekly reflection papers and a long research paper.

              All students are required to participate in the class discussions.  Grade distribution is not based on a curve.


              Discussion participation: 160 points, Oral presentations/Weekly reflection

              papers: 160 points Preparation for final paper/Final paper: 180 points.

              Total: 500 points

              History 102O – Africa Since 1960: Cultures, Politics and Economies

              Professor Jean-Baptiste

              This course is provides an introduction to African history from 1960 to the present day.  These decades witnessed tremendous political, social, cultural, and economic change.  African societies achieved independence from European colonial rule and debated how to shape nations and societies.

              As African peoples migrated around the globe, they also shaped world history.  This course explores the depth and diversity of historical change across the continent by focusing on and problematizing major themes of study.  Topics include: colonialism, decolonization and nationalism; states, politics, and democracy; marriage, sexuality, and family life; war and civil conflict; gender and women’s rights; economic development; and youth and popular culture.  Course materials will range from classic works of African fiction, memoirs, comic books, films and documentaries, African art and music, as well as academic texts.


              Titsi Dangarembga, Nervous Conditions

              Ngugi Wa Thiongo, Weep Not Child

              Chinua Achebe, Man of The People

              Chimanda Ngozi Adichie, Half of A Yellow Sun

              Mariama Ba, So Long A Letter

              Alain Mabankou, Blue White Red

              Richard J. Reid:  A History of Modern Africa 1800 to the Present (2012 edition)

              History 110 – Themes in World History 
              Professor Jean-Baptiste 

              Between the 1400s and 1800s the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Africa, Europe, and the Americas increased and resulted in immense historical change. This course surveys the social, cultural, economic, and political exchanges of this period with particular attention to how African societies and peoples shaped the unfolding of the Atlantic Ocean world.

              Following the travels and travails of a diverse group of African historical actors, the course will encompass West Africa, England, France, Brazil, Haiti, and the United States. We explore the themes of maritime and technological innovation, science, slavery, religion and belief, trade and commerce, sexuality, marriage and family life, as well as changing concepts such as law and order, race and identity, resistance, freedom, and nation.


              Africa’s Discovery of Europe by David Northrup

              The Kongolese Saint Anthony by John Thornton

              Sara Baartman and the Hottentot Venus: A Ghost Story and a Biography, by Pamela Scully and Clifton Crais

              The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano Or, Gustavus Vassa, The African by Himself (The Modern Library Classic Version, ISBN:978-0375-76115-7)

              History 111A – Ancient History 
              Professor Spyridakis 

              The Ancient Near East from the Sumerian city-states to the Persian Empire. The cultures of Babylon and Egypt will be emphasized.


              • J. Oates, Babylon
              • N.K. Sanders, ed. The Epic of Gilgamesh
              • J. A. Wilson, The Culture of Ancient Egypt
              • H. M. Orlinsky, Ancient Israel


              Grading: Midterm: 25%; paper: 25%; final exam: 50% of course grade.

              History 115F – History of North Africa in the Modern World 
              Professor Miller 

              The history of the modern Maghrib (North Africa) has been deeply marked by the experience of colonization. For many years, critical scholarship on the colonial Maghrib focused on big events, “great men,” and political outcomes; in so doing, it often reduced a complex encounter into a series of simple oppositions: colonizer/colonized, white/black, European/native. More recent scholarship pays greater attention to the bit actors, the women and minorities, and the marginal figures that made “history from below,” generating fresh questions for historical discussion: How did Maghribis regard their colonial masters, and how did Europeans in turn restructure their ideas about the  native “Other” over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries?  How did Maghribi culture influence society in the metropole?  What role did language and literature play in shaping colonial and indigenous mentalities?  What institutions and practices introduced by foreign rule had a lasting effect on post-independence regimes?  What roles do memory and forgetting play in writing the contemporary history of the region?  Proceeding more or less chronologically, each week we shall engage with a different problem relating to the North African colonial experience and its aftermath.  Film and fiction will give us a “feel” for how individuals traversed this long moment in Maghribi history.


              • Alexis de Tocqueville, Writings on Empire and Slavery
              • Albert Memmi, The Colonizer and the Colonized
              • Mu’ammar al-Gathafi  (Qaddafi)   The Green Book
              • Muhammad al-Saffar, Dusorienting Encounters
              • Tahar Ben Jelloun, This Blinding Absence of Light
              • Susan Slyomovics, The Performance of Human Rights in Morocco


              Grading: TBA

              History 120 – History of World War II
              Professor Rauchway 

              The Second World War from 1931 to 1945 in all of its theaters. Causes, conduct, and consequences of the war including military, political, economic, social, and cultural factors, with special emphasis on battlefield strategy and mobilization of the home front.


              • Joachim Fest, Not I
              • George MacDonald Fraser, Quartered Safe Out Here
              • Anonymous, A Woman in Berlin
              • Levi Primo, Survival in Auschwitz
              • Studs Terkel, The Good War


              Grading: TBA

              History 121A – Medival History 
              The Staff

              European history from “the fall of the Roman Empire” to the eight century”

              Readings: TBA

              Grading: TBA

              History 130B – Christianity and Culture in Europe: 1450-1600
              Professor Harris

              Between 1450 and 1600, Christianity in Europe underwent dramatic transformations that permanently redefined the continent's religious landscape. While most medieval Europeans had shared a common Catholic faith, by the end of the sixteenth century, uniformity of belief and identity had been permanently destroyed, replaced by a kaleidoscope of competing churches, sects, and factions. Together, we will explore the ideas and events of the European Reformations, both Protestant and Catholic, devoting particular attention to changing concepts of community and identity and the links between religious beliefs and social, political, and cultural change. Our readings and discussions will examine not only the ideas of the key thinkers of the period, such as Luther, Calvin, Zwingli, and Loyola, but also the effects of their ideas on Europeans of all walks of life. Readings will range from recent scholarly studies to trial records, letters, treatises, and other primary sources from the epoch.


              • Carter Lindberg, The European Reformations
              • Olin, John C. A Reformation Debate: John Calvin & Jacopo Sadoleto
              • Nalle, Sara Tilghman, Mad for God
              • Course reader


              Grading: 25% paper #1, 25% paper #2, 20% midterm, 20% final exam, 10% preparation, participation, quizzes, and other assignments

              History 133 – The Age of Ideas
              Professor Stolzenberg 

              This course examines European thought from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment. Through lectures, discussion, and reading primary sources by authors such as Machiavelli, Las Casas, Descartes, Hobbes, and Rousseau, we will explore the epoch-making changes that took place in how Europeans sought knowledge of politics, nature, God, and the human condition between 1400 and 1800, laying the intellectual foundations for the modern world.


              • Rousseau, A Discourse of Inequality
              • Descartes, Discourse on Method and Meditation on First Philosophy
              • Voltaire, Candide
              • Wooton ed. Machiavelli, Selected Political Writings

              Grading: TBA

                History 147A – European Intellectual History, 1800-1870
                The Staff 

                European thought in the early industrial era. Shifting cultural frameworks, from romanticism to scientism; liberal and socialist reactions to social change. Focus on the work of Goethe, Hegel, J.S. Mill, Marx, Darwin and Flaubert.

                Readings: TBA

                Grading: TBA

                History 148C – Women and Society in Europe 1914-present 
                Professor Hutton

                The history of 20th-century Europe from the perspective of women and the family, and of sexual and gender relations. Emphasis will be on women’s experiences and the themes of sexuality and the body; suffrage and feminism, women and the nation, gender/women and empire, and globalization.

                Readings: Ann Taylor Allen, Women in Twentieth-Century Europe

                Vera Brittain, Testament of Youth

                Emilie Carles, A  Life of Her Own

                Buchi Emecheta, Second-Class Citizen

                Elena Gorokhova, A Mountain of Crumbs

                Grading: Two analytical papers (45%) two exams (40%); weekly reaction assignments and participation (15%).

                History 151C – Eighteenth Century England Rachel Reeves

                This course covers English history from the Glorious Revolution through the French Revolution. Through the works of key thinkers such as Locke, Swift, Burke, and Paine, as well as more obscure and every-day sources, we will examine the transformation of one of Europe’s most politically unstable kingdoms into the firmly established constitutional monarchy which provided the environment of the industrial revolution.  By reading different explanations that historians have given for this sudden stability, we will also explore the influence of political bias on the making of history.  In this course, students will practice the skills and sensitivities necessary for historical inquiry, including critical thinking, reading comprehension, reasoned debate, and clear communication through writing.

                Classes combine lecture, discussion, and film.


                • Wilcox and Arnstein The Age of Aristocracy, 1688-1830
                • Steven Pincus England's Glorious Revolution 1688-1689: A Brief History with Documents
                • Course reader

                Grading: TBA

                History 160 – Spain and America in the 16th Century 
                Professor Harris

                This course brings together the history of early modern Spain together with its colonial empire in the Americas. Our inquiry focuses on Spain and Spanish America during the “long sixteenth century”— roughly from the mid fifteenth century through the first decades of the seventeenth century. Through the lens of Spain and Spanish America, we explore key themes in early modern European and Latin American history. Topics include the tensions between social and regional identities and centralized monarchical power; the rise of transatlantic trade and its effects on economic and social development in Spain and Spanish America; the development of governmental institutions in Spain and in the colonies; Habsburg dynastic and diplomatic politics in Europe and beyond; the role of race and religion in social relations; and various aspects of Spanish and Spanish-American religious life. Readings range from recent scholarly studies to trial records, letters, treatises, and other materials from the epoch. Classes combine lecture and discussion.

                Note to History majors: This course may count toward EITHER the European OR the Latin American fields within the History major (but not both).EITHER the European OR the Latin American fields within the History major (but not both).


                • Erauso, Catalina de, Lieutenant Nun: Memoir of a Basque Transvestite in the New World, trans. Michele Stepto and Gabriel Stepto (Boston, 1996); ISBN: 978-0807070734
                • Elliott, J. H., Imperial Spain, 1469-1716 (New York, 1990); ISBN 0140135170
                • Las Casas, Bartolomé. An Account, Much Abbreviated, of the Destruction of the Indies With Related Texts, ed. Franklin W. Knight, trans. Andrew Hurley (Indianapolis, 2003); ISBN 0872206254
                • Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar, Castaways: the narrative of Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, ed. Enrique Pupo-Walker, trans. Frances M. López-Morillas (Berkeley, 1993); ISBN 0-520-07063-1
                • Corteguera, Luis. Death by Effigy: A Case from the Mexican Inquisition (Philadelphia, 2013); ISBN 978-0812244397
                • A reader of primary source documents and other materials.

                Grading: TBA

                History 166B – History of Mexico Since 1848
                The Staff

                History of Mexico from 1848 to the present

                Readings: TBA

                  Grading: TBA

                  History 174C – United States since World War II, 1945 to Present 
                  Professor Oropeza 

                  This course examines social, political, cultural and diplomatic developments in American history from World War II to the present. We will pay special attention to social movements at home, the extension of American power abroad, and how and why we remember what we do.

                  Readings: TBA

                  Grading: TBA

                  History 178B – Race in America, 1865 - Present 
                  Professor CE Walker

                  This course covers the history of racial formation in the United States from 1860-present.  Specifically the continuities and discontinuities in the history of Asians, blacks, Mexicans, Native Americans, and whites in postbellum America.

                  Readings: TBA

                  Grading: TBA

                  History 179 – Asian American History 
                  Professor Tsu

                  This course surveys the historical experience of people of Asian ancestry in the United States from the mid-nineteenth century to the present.  We will explore the experiences of Asian immigrants and Asian Americans within the broader context of immigration and race relations in U.S. history.  Major questions framing the course will be:  What are the arguments for a common Asian American experience?  What are the limits of a shared Asian American experience?  What does the history of Asian America tell us about America?  How have Asian Americans resisted and struggled to define their identity, livelihood, and a sense of “home” in America?


                  • Shelley Lee, A New History of Asian America
                  • Kiyo Sato, Kiyo’s Story: A Japanese-American Family’s Quest for the American Dream
                  • Craig Scharlin and Lilian Villanueva, Philip Vera Cruz: A Personal History of Filipino Immigrants and the Farmworkers Movement
                  • Kao Kalia Yang, The Late Homecomer: A Hmong Family Memoir
                  • Other readings to be posted on SmartSite


                  Grading: Midterm and final examinations; term paper.

                    History 190C – Middle Eastern History III: The Ottomans, 1401-1730 Professor Tezcan

                    This course focuses on Middle Eastern history from the foundation of the Ottoman Empire on the borderlands of Byzantine Anatolia through its expansion into Europe, Asia, and Africa, creating a new cultural synthesis including the Arab, Armenian, Greek, Islamic, Jewish, Mongol, Persian, Slavic, and Turkish traditions.

                    The course starts with offering a background on the history of the Middle East before the Ottomans. The chronological survey of the period takes the first two weeks, leaving the rest of the term for the exploration of three interrelated themes: pre-modern imperialism, pre-modern identities, and the development of the early modern self and society.

                    With the feudal economic and legal structures it inherited, the Ottoman Empire was a perfect example of a pre-modern empire. The second part of the course will examine these structures and certain aspects of Ottoman imperialism in the Middle East, North Africa, the Mediterranean, Europe, and the Indian Ocean. How the Ottomans projected their imperial image to their rivals and subjects will be one of the questions we will address. Last but not least, we will discuss the limits of pre-modern imperialism in the face of the rise of merchant capitalism in northwestern Europe.

                    The third part of the course will concentrate on pre-modern identities. The Ottoman Empire presents one of the most diverse social entities of the pre-modern times, with its Christian, Jewish, and Muslim communities which were sub-divided into further religious communities, such as the Gregorian and the Orthodox Christians, or ethnic groups, such as the Arabs, Kurds, and Turks. Needless to say, the people of the empire were also differentiated by their gender and socio-economic status. What makes this diversity of identities most fascinating in the pre-modern times is the ease with which one could cross most of their boundaries.

                    Finally, the last part of the course will focus on the development of the early modern self and society. A critical approach to the historical question of the Ottoman decline will lead us to new ways of looking at the history of the Ottoman Empire in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. One of the paths we take will make us observe that this period witnessed a proliferation of public spaces in Ottoman cities. Another venue we will follow is early individuation, that is to say the first stages in the development of the modern self. At the end, we will all re-consider the question of the impact of the West on the East as far as the question of modernization is concerned.

                    READINGS:  None; the students will have access to all the readings on SmartSite.

                    GRADING:  TBA

                      History 191C – Late Imperial China 
                      Professor Javers 

                      Patterns and problems of Chinese life traced through the Ming and Qing dynasties (c. 1500-1800). In the sixteenth century, when Europeans first reached the far eastern shores of Eurasia, the Ming Empire was one of the most populous, urbanized, economically advanced, and culturally sophisticated societies in the world. By the early twentieth century, that status quo had been turned on its head.  European and American steamships now dominated the Pacific while China was in the throes of social and political upheaval. Using documents, fiction, art, architecture, and selected scholarly writings, we will try to understand the historical dynamics of this enormous change.

                      Readings: TBA

                      Grading: Assignments include a map quiz, short response papers, in-class midterm, and final exam.

                      The goals of this class are to 1) acquire a broad understanding of China’s historical development; 2) read, interpret and understand documents from the period (the key work of an historian).

                      History 195B History of Modern Korea 
                      Professor Kim

                      This course provides an introduction to the history of modern Korea, the only Humanities-Social Sciences course offered on Korea at UC Davis.  The course surveys political, socioeconomic and cultural developments in the last 130 years of Korean history, from the collapse of the Yi Dynasty (Chosen) Korea to today. Main topics examined in the course include: socioeconomic and political changes in late 19th-century Korea; decline and collapse of the Yi dynasty monarchy; growth of nationalism and reform movements; modernization under Japanese colonialism in the first half of 20th century; decolonization and the Korean War; postwar economic growth and effects of the Cold War; comparison of North and South Korea.
                      The course requirements include lecture and discussion sections. No prior exposure to East Asian history is necessary, although previous exposure to Chinese or Japanese history may be helpful.

                      Readings: TBA

                      Grading: The grading will be based on a paper, class participation and examinations.









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